When animals are allowed to choose their own plant medicines, it can alleviate much unnecessary suffering and save lives, while simultaneously providing us with clues and insights into their needs. Over the decades I have worked to prove that domestication has not interfered with the mechanisms involved in self-medicative behaviours and that it is a mechanism that is hard-wired into all living animals including newborns. I have observed that providing medicinal plants (secondary metabolites) have been in an animal’s evolutionary history, animals can recognise them as medicines, while also being able to regulate their dosage. They have evolved to use these plants to aid their survival – any animal that didn’t have this innate mechanism would have died out long ago.


click on image below to listen to Caroline's interview


Ingraham Applied Zoopharmacognosy

Ingraham Applied Zoopharmacognosy (IAZ) enables self-medicative behaviour in domesticated or captive animals by offering plant extracts that would contain the same, or similar constituents to those found in an animal’s natural environment. The practice encourages and allows an animal to guide its own health, since unlike their wild counterparts, captive and domesticated animals rarely have the opportunity to forage on medical plants.


The Ingraham Academy

View Courses

Caroline's ongoing research provides the most advanced education available in this field. Animal gateway courses are offered to those interested in working naturally with their own animals using the principles of Applied Zoopharmacognosy, and specialist training is available for veterinary surgeons and animal welfare organisations.

Zoopharmacognosy Consultations

Caroline offers Applied Zoopharmacognosy and enrichment consultations to a range of animal welfare organisations round the world, as well as to individuals.

These can be in person or via Skype.

Find out more