Caroline has developed a new branch of ethology, studying animal self-medicative behaviours in response to aromatic plant extracts. This has led to the Ingraham Method of Individualised Medicine (IMIM) which teaches a safe and effective approach to animal self-medication.

Caroline is a leading expert in the field of animal self-medication and founder of Applied Zoopharmacognosy and the Ingraham Method of Individualised Medicine (IMIM). She is an author, lecturer and teacher, with 38 plus years of experience in self-medication and aromatic medicine. Her work plays an important role in animal welfare and encompasses an understanding of ethology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacology in combination with animal self-medication. Caroline works with domestic animals, as well as a wide range of other species, such as; kangaroos, polar bears, brown bears, elephants, tigers, rhinos and primates.

Her work has featured in many journals and magazines and Caroline has written numerous books on animal self-medication. She has appeared on the BBC, ITV, BBC Radio 4, National Geographic TV and at the Hay Festival of Literature and Arts.

Caroline is in demand globally as a consultant and teacher, speaking regularly at international symposiums. She lectures to vets, vet nurses, animal professionals, university students all over the world, as well as empowering those with companion animals to form new lines of communication using self-medicative techniques, to help animals in their care.

Caroline's Journey

Most of my adult life, over the past three decades, has been dedicated to researching and observing how animals heal themselves across a wide range of species, from companion animals to kangaroos, polar bears, brown bears, elephants, tigers, rhinos and primates. I believe that from applied zoopharmacognosy, a new branch of ethology has developed which takes a new look into the causes of behavioural problems seen in domestic, companion and captive animals.

Back in the nineteen eighties I discovered that companion animals could communicate their health needs via offering them aromatic plant extracts – it was an amazing breakthrough. They could let us know which plant medicines they needed, and if they did, where they needed it, and dosed themselves accordingly.

Horses were my initial teachers. I found their body language easy to read, and they were very clear about the exact plant extracts they required. Very soon, patterns began to emerge: horses with separation anxiety mainly selected neroli; those who were wounded chose yarrow and those requiring pain relief opted for remedies such as wintergreen, arnica and St John’s wort.

From here I began observing how wild animals self-medicate, and took this information to domestic and companion animals, giving them the freedom to use their same innate capabilities to heal themselves. Many of you will familiar with the story of my German Shepherd dog (GSD) Gunner who was bitten by a rattlesnake and who had not responded to the anti-venom drip and was dying, but made an amazingly quick recovery as soon as he took the remedies.

It was the beginning of what is now known as a new science. I coined the term ‘Applied Zoopharmacognosy’ to describe the process of bringing a rich pharmacopoeia of natural remedies to animals who are not free to forage. I continued the scientific study of essential oils with leaders in the field, as well as the study of pharmacokinetics and pharmacology in relation to plant and animal health. The Ingraham Academy of Applied Zoopharmacognosy was set up to help raise awareness further among vets, zoos, sanctuaries and pet-parents around the world.

My work soon expanded to orphaned elephants in Kenya at the Sheldrick Trust. I worked with Shimba who was orphaned at six weeks old. This little elephant was relatively reclusive, so I offered neroli essential oil, which my research had shown is often selected when an animal has experienced a loss of some kind. Shimba gently inhaled the oil following its aroma with his trunk, and gradually he climbed onto my lap. This was the point at which Dame Daphne Sheldrick MBE and her daughter Angelia saw the value of the work and it wasn’t long before I was back to help Sinya.

Caroline set up a training academy in 1997 teaching and lecturing in countries such as Australia, America, Hong Kong, and Europe. She was invited by Michael Huffman, associate Professor at Kyoto University to speak in South Korea. She also introduced the subject to The sheldrick Trust in Africa, and Born Free in the UK. Ian Redmond OBE invited her to become a member of the Primate Society of Great Britain and asked if she would lecture to Zoology undergraduates at Bristol University. More recently Caroline spoke to undergraduates at the Zoological Society at the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, London. Caroline has trained staff and worked with a number of charities including Battersea Dogs and Cats Home as well as the RSPCA.


"Hi Caroline, Firstly I would like to say a massive thank you to you for your amazing book, How animals heal themselves. I have been having some incredible results with my rescue dogs and my horses. Thank you again from the bottom of my heart."


“Dear Caroline, Thank you so much for your teaching. You are the most humble, patient and inspiring teacher I have ever met. I couldn’t really hold my tears in class. My feelings are so complex that I don’t know how to put them in words. Your words and your attitude towards our beloved animals on the earth make me reflect on myself as an owner and also as a human being. After the private session, I am so excited that I can read my dog after all these years finally. Addressing her needs makes me feel connected with my doggie. I m pretty sure she felt the same as she kissed me so many times at that night. That’s unusual for her to do so. I can definitely feel the love and understanding. Thanks again for doing so much helping animals.”



When I first started using oils, I bought most of them from 'good' suppliers... Having bought a few replacements now from you, I can't ever go back! The difference in them from my point of view is intense, and the animals are all choosing oils they never wanted to go near before!” 


Recent books

Help Your Dog Heal Itself: 3rd Edition

Animal Self-Medication



Hay Festival of Literature and Arts

Natural Dog Conference

University of Bristol: Veterinary and Zoological Society

BBC Radio 4: Four Thought

Hay Festival of Literature and Arts

British Essential Oil Association

Your Horse Magazine

Interview with Dr Karen Becker: USA

University of Sussex: Botanica

Aromatherapy Today conference: Australia

International Conference for Innovative Veterinary Medicine: Holland

Hungarian Aromatherapy Conference

RCVS Zoological Society of London



Psychologies Magazine

Canadian Federation of Aromatherapy

Your Dog Magazine

Your Dog Magazine (sensory gardens)

The Veterinary Times

The Daily Telegraph

Your Horse Magazine

Science Psy

The Daily Telegraph