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 "Its time to re-evaluate our relationship with animals and start perceiving them as active rather than passive beings"

Caroline Ingraham


An individualised approach

Applied zoopharmacognosy enables self-medicative behaviours in domesticated and captive animals by providing plant extracts containing constituents similar to those encountered in their evolutionary history, since unlike their wild counterparts, captive and domesticated animals seldom have the opportunity to forage for the medicinal plants they need to maintain and restore their health.  The offered extracts include various essential oils, absolutes, plant extracts, and algae. This approach empowers animals to tap into their innate ability to select what they need. The animal will guide their dose by either by inhaling it, taking it orally (depending on species), or indicate its topical application. As the condition improves or clears, the animal will reduce or cease selecting the previously chosen plant extracts.

The key to achieving truly remarkable results is to allow animals to be in control of selecting their remedy, dosage and application. Animals know exactly which remedy and how much is needed to bring themselves back to health, even before symptoms manifest. A selection of appropriate remedies are offered so that an animal can select the ones that are most suited to their physiology and condition.¬†It is critical that animals are allowed to move away from the remedies at all times and that medicinal plants are not put into their feed to ensure that they are not forced onto an animal. Otherwise¬†an animal may take a remedy that is not needed, or at the wrong dosage, or they may even reject their food to avoid the ‚Äėremedy‚Äô.¬†

The Ingraham Method of Innate Medicine (IMIM) encapsulates the culmination of my extensive observational, practical and scientific research. Its innovative approach is rooted in my newly developed branch of animal ethology, which incorporates pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacology. IMIM techniques involve a keen analysis of body language (different to classical behavioural training). It seeks to unravel problems by considering various factors, such as behavioural clues that help in assessing which oils or remedies to offer first. The animal will select remedies at a dose to match the species, breed, the severity of the condition, their metabolism, and individual gene expression. IMIM promotes a form of individualised medicine, tailoring to the unique characteristics of each animal.



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Applied Zoopharmacognosy stands on a scientific foundation, looking into what animals select for specific conditions. Research not only provides valuable insights into animal welfare, animal behaviour, chronic disease and drug resistance, but also has practical applications for humans.  


All rights reserved. No part of this website may be reproduced, modified, stored, or transmitted without prior written permission. Material downloaded must be used in context and credited appropriately. The author asserts rights under copyright law. No liability is accepted for the accuracy or safety of information. Applied Zoopharmacognosy or Self-Medication cannot diagnose conditions and should not replace veterinary medicine. The author is not responsible for the use of plant extracts.